Per Ardua Ad Astra

  • This is Slide 1 Title

    This is slide 1 description. Go to Edit HTML and replace these sentences with your own words. This is a Blogger template by Lasantha -

  • This is Slide 2 Title

    This is slide 2 description. Go to Edit HTML and replace these sentences with your own words. This is a Blogger template by Lasantha -

  • This is Slide 3 Title

    This is slide 3 description. Go to Edit HTML and replace these sentences with your own words. This is a Blogger template by Lasantha -

Monday, December 3, 2018

What are your take-aways?

This written page is a self-reflection from the class of equity and inequality in schools. Some of the following issues may be similar to what's happening in my country and can be my homework to deal with promptly.

1.     Deficit thinking
What I learned from this material is that deficit thinking accounts for student’s academic and social failures at schools by blaming on the students, student’s family lack, and student’s lack of traits necessary for academic success. Consequently, the students are at risk of bullying or not confident. By acknowledging this term, I think teachers should stop this thinking by realizing that every student has inherent strength and value and try to learn more about the life of a student outside of school. I believe some students are good in outside activity in which the teachers can bring it to adapt the learning in schools.
2.     Social construction
As one of the foundational terms for engaging with areas of difference, social construction is important to note. We as a society commonly make the meaning of what happens around us, and its consequence is socially constructed. It can be either advantages or disadvantages. So that, we need to understand better the diversity of difference and create the meaning that can lead to equity in a society because I believe that social construction can be changed as we want to.
3.     Brown at 60
What I want to point out here is that it is critical to report what the government should do for creating equal opportunities in public schools. According to the data provided by Brown, the South made impressive progress on reducing segregated school rate from 1968 to 2011 because the South was targeted for the implementation of Brown v. Board Education and Civil Rights Act. This report contains data that we can use to gauge the progress of it and what works and what does not work, so that, we can improve as needed. Here, the data is really important to reflect what do’s and don’ts on the issues of students, and we can use it as accountability for creating and promoting equal opportunities.
4.     NPR interview or conversation
What I take away from this activity is that we need to involve parents as a collaborator in schools. Based on this conversation, the parents were worried about their children in schools in the name of racial discrimination. It is critical for schools to create equal services by inviting student’s parents to discuss what happens in the schools and what the parents and schools should respond to it. Regardless of that, I think the schools should engage students and student’s parents in planning and evaluating the learning programs.
5.     The book of The Story of American Public Education by Sarah Mondale & Sarah Patton
What I gained from this is that it is noteworthy to historize the story of public schools. By learning what happened in the past, we can learn how the public schools grow and impact on society. We also know the progress of the education from the racial era to segregated schools to integrated schools. We know that the practice in schools seems like an experiment in order to know which the best programs for desegregating the racial issues. Then, I learn about how the society or an activist tries to campaign the justice in schools. There is a big role in society, community, or an activist on improving the integration.
6.     Racial disparities in special education: how widespread is the problem?
This article highlights a standardized yardstick that should be used by all states to investigate the districts for identifying and punishing minority students at markedly higher rates than their peers. However, it could be done since every state has different results. So that, the U.S. government lets states develop and promote their own guidelines. In this case, I agree with that because we cannot generalize that what a state needs would be not similar to others.
7.     The book of Just Mercy: A Story of Justice and Redemption by Bryan Stevenson
What I reflect on this activity is about justice and how we can uphold it for the Black people who are oppressed. This leads me to think that the justice that we need covers more than in court but all elements such as in schools. As Bryan’s dedication of doing the right thing to help those who were in unsupported or restricted conditions is to justify the justice in the U.S. In schools, teachers can hold up the justice for their students by providing equal opportunity and treatments without looking at their race, gender, or categories of disabilities.
8.     LGBTQ
What a tough material! Many issues follow the existence of LGBTQ such as discrimination, harassment, gender facilities, gender activities, and policies. Interestingly, there is a LGBTQ community, but we have no legal laws either prohibiting or allowing this community to exist. On the other hands, as the God-believing population, we have cultural mores and religious rules banning the activity of the LGBTQ community. So that, there is still no place for LGBTQ youth to express in schools or society, and for LGBQ adults, they have to keep their identities or they will be expelled from society. Then, transgender lives in a hard situation and discrimination, especially in employment. What I want to point out is that the issue of LGBTQ still remains, and I think the government in my country should enact the legal laws for LGBTQ whether or not they are accepted. 
9.     Opening activity: untie the chain of hands by Wenjie
This activity is interesting for me. Initially, I thought it was not really possible to deal with the chain of hands. By tying the participant’s hands, it felt so complicated, and I nearly gave up. However, it was solved by working together. In this case, I reflect on the issues in schools such as racial disparities, segregated programs, and unfair services. I think if everybody sees the issues individually, it would be impossible to solve. However, if we collaborate with others, it would be not easy but it is possible to grapple with together. This connects to the ELL student material whereby when the academic material teachers and ELL teachers worked jointly, the achievement gap between ELL and non-ELL students was decreased. This activity emphasizes that we are in need of collaborating with others in regards to solve the issues and to create an equal environment.
10.  Programs for students with disabilities and English learners
A term that I want to highlight is “integrated but still separated” for students with disabilities and English learners in schools. Despite the fact that they are schooled in integrated schools with their peers, the system still removes them from the regular class. I think the schools need to eliminate the self-contained program, pull-out program, and other separated program. It is important for schools to encourage the academic materials teachers and special educators or English teachers to work jointly and be responsible for the student’s progress altogether.

Friday, November 2, 2018

Three Lenses Blog (Blindness or Visual Impairment)

Hi everyone,
Here, I want to share my findings about blindness or visual impairment through medical model, social model, and autobiography view. Please enjoy your reading and make comments or questions. Thank you.

Medical Model Lens
In this model, I gleaned definitions related to blindness, its causes, and its treatments from several resources of medical model of blindness. In the end, I relate the way of medical model to the application of reducing the number of infants with lacking of vitamin A that might cause blindness in Indonesia.
According to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). There are some terms, which are: blindness, legal blindness, and vision impairment. Blindness is defined as a severe vision impairment that is not correctable by standard glasses, contact lenses, medicine, or surgery. Legal blindness is defined as vision with best correction in the better eye worse than or equal to 20/200 as a result of visual acuity. Visual acuity is a number that indicates the sharpness or clarity of vision. For example, a person with a visual acuity measurement of 20/70 means that a person who stands 20 feet from an eye chart can see the letters or things in which a person with unimpaired (or 20/20) vision can see from 70 feet away. Then, vision impairment is prescribed as having 20/40 or worse vision in the better eye even with eyeglasses, however, they can experience challenges in their daily activities. For example, people with vision less than 20/40 cannot obtain an unrestricted driver’s license in most states. By referring to medical model, these terms connected to visual impairment are focus on the function of seeing with eyes as a problem, and this condition influences a person’s ability to perform everyday activities.
In addition to the meaning of blindness, Healthline accessed from posts that blindness is the inability to see anything, even light. However, there is a term of partially blindness or limited vision for those may have blurry vision or the inability to distinguish the shapes of objects. Another term is complete blindness which means that you cannot see at all and are in total darkness. This blog also defines legal blindness as a term referring to vision that is highly compromised. What a person with healthy eyes can see from 200 feet away a legally blind person can see only from 20 feet away.
Given the view of what causes blindness provided by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), there are major blinding eye diseases namely cataracts, age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma. A cataract is a clouding of the eye’s lens, which causes vision to become blurred or dimmed because the light cannot be transmitted properly through the lens of retina. Age-related macular degeneration affects the part of the retina responsible for sharp central vision. Diabetic retinopathy is an eye disease that affects the tiny blood vessels in the retina of people with diabetes. Glaucoma is a group of disease usually associated with increased pressure within the eye. They are common causes of blindness. In addition to that, also states that the following eye diseases and conditions can cause blindness, among others:
  • Glaucoma refers to four different eye conditions that can damage your optic nerve, which carries visual information from your eyes to your brain.
  • Macular degeneration destroys the part of your eye that enables you to see details. It usually affects older adults.
  • Cataracts cause cloudy vision. They’re more common in older people.
  • A lazy eye can make it difficult to see details. It may lead to vision loss.
  • Optic neuritis is inflammation that can cause temporary or permanent vision loss.
  • Retinitis pigmentosa refers to damage of the retina. It leads to blindness only in rare cases.
  • Tumors that affect your retina or optic nerve can also cause blindness.

All in all, these eye diseases and conditions are mostly major causality that made people blind, vision impaired, legally blind, or partially blind.
According to Healthline accessed from, blindness is diagnosed by following a series of tests by eye doctor that measures the clarity of the vision, the function of eye muscles, and how pupils react to light, and examines the general health of eyes. In the same way, Medicinenet retrieved from says that the diagnosis of blindness is made by examination of all parts of the eye by an ophthalmologist, a medical doctor who specializes in eye and vision care, by testing each eye individually and by measuring the visual acuity and the visual field, or peripheral vision. Regarding to the treatments for those with blindness, states that some of the following may help them to restore their vision: eyeglasses, contact lenses, surgery, medication. Moreover, they sometimes require approaching life in a new way and learning new skills. For example, they need to learn how to: read Braille, use a guide dog, memorize the keypad on your phone, organize your home so you can find things easily, fold money in distinct ways to distinguish bill amounts, use a magnifying glass to read, increase the text size on your computer, and use audio clocks and audiobooks. What is more, Democracy Disability and Society Group through exposes the medical model seeing the problem is focused on body impairment. It should be rehabilitated or healed, so it would help them in minimizing its consequences in activities of daily living. For example, the blindness is a problem that needs to be fixed or corrected. When someone is diagnosed as having vision impairment, s/he would be recommended by an eye doctor to use eyeglasses or take an eye surgery in order to help her/himself in adaptation.

Picture 1. The Medical Model of Disability

Based on the the aforementioned explanations about the definitions of blindness, its causes, how to diagnose it, and treatments that they may need, I think that this medical model of disability focuses on the condition of blindness. This condition is considered as a problem and needed to be fixed or cured in order to reduce its impacts on their daily life, so they can be more capable or “normal”. Regardless of that, I also think that medical perspective on the state of vision impairment could influence the betterment of health services in my country, Indonesia, especially for the prevention for lacking of Vitamin A that frequently happens in rural areas. According to the, the Indonesian government has a program in terms of reducing the lack of Vitamin A and preventing from eye diseases for infants. They will be having supplemental capsule of vitamin A in every February and August in health services, and it is free.

Social Model Lens
In this social model of blindness, i would like to combine some definitions from several resources and try to connect them into the application of Universal Design for Learning (UDL) that leads to inclusive environments for all people.
David Bolt (2005: 1) notes that the social model of disability holds that persons are impaired for a number of reasons, and they are disabled because of society. This means that it is socially constructed when the disabled is segregated from a community. Another resource, Aaron Carter Bates, states that organizations primarily engaging in advocacy for the social model of disability seek to create a more inclusive society instead of putting the onus to change on individuals with disabilities. For example, the National Federation of the Blind formulates this model of disability by framing the problem as the misconceptions surrounding blindness, not blindness itself. These are organizations who presume the competence of people with disabilities and then set out to change the world to get the accommodations necessary to achieve equal treatment.
Regarding to the statements described by David Bolt and Aaron Carter Bates, adds that the social model of disability posits that disability is constructed by society and is caused by the way society is organized. Our society made by and for non-disabled people and anyone who cannot fit into that model is disabled. This site also provides a picture showing that the social model considers the barriers are outside of the disabled such as environments and attitudes. In accordance with people with blindness or vision impairment, they will face challenges in environment, attitudes, an/or organisations. Take for example of environment, they may face inaccessible building services such as there are no guiding blocks and dot blocks in sidewalks, and they grapple with the obtainable materials in schools. The example of attitudes is that society believes that the blind could not do their best compared to their peers. Then, organizations would be social barriers when there are several inflexible procedures or practices limiting the blind to get involved.

Picture 2. The Social Model of Disability

Here, attitudes are really important to come together with people with blindness in positive and meaningful ways. As stated by Susan Baglieri (2017: 111), there are some common-sense responses to interact with them, among others;
  • we need to communicate verbally,
  • using common words to refer to experiences will not be received offensively,
  • we need to consider to use least movements or gesture cues,
  • we need to support in guiding them properly by verbalizing specific directions, to help them in orienting surroundings, and to guide other’s hands to objects that could be useful.

For environments, social model brings the society to create an inclusive settings by implementing Universal Design for Learning (UDL) that allows general education students access to multiple ways of learning and making it be accessible for all users. Given that Anne Meyer, David Rose, and David Gordon (on page 18), there are Rubik’s cubes developed for the blind and all users. Initially, Konstantin Datz, a German university student, developed a white cube for the blind with words for each color in Braille. Although this is so interesting, but there are some flaws such as the blind users do not know about the Braille and this cube is significantly designed for a single user. Consequently, given the the extensive cuber’s community, the white cube is re-designed with more options, which are with colors and tactile information. The symbols that align with colors are easy to identify through touch, and it is more usable for all Cuber’s users. This design provides additional benefits enabling users to inspect the sides of each cube without turning the cube to look. This example of the application of UDL shows that supporting user variability is critically important. As stated by Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and Optional Protocol (page 4), universal design means the design of products, environments, programmes and services to be usable by all people, to the greatest extent possible, without the need for adaptation or specialized design. So that, the universal design is designed environments more accessible for all users including particular groups of persons with disabilities.

Picture 3. A white Rubik’s cube with Braille
Picture 4. A tactile Rubik’s cube

In educational settings, Anne Meyer, David Rose, and David Gordon, (page 3), UDL uses the flexibility of digital technology to design learning environments for diverse learner needs, not just students with disabilities. The purpose of UDL is to reduce the barriers and impediments that interfere their ability to make optimal progress. Take for instance, CAST showed that how technology could alter the curriculum itself by developing digital book that was accessible and flexible to all students. This e-book was created with different features depending on what students needed. This book had an option page such as the audio, its speed, and its scan. These options enabled all students to use such as text read aloud for those with reading challenges and blindness, linked definitions for those with limited vocabulary,  large buttons that voiced their functions for students with low vision, and single-switch interface for those with physical challenges.

Picture 5. Digital books created by CAST

Autobiography View
Here, I would like to present the autobiography view from Mimi Mariani Lusli who wants to share the way she experienced as a blind person in Indonesia. Given the information provided by, Mimi realized that when she was a fourth-grade student in elementary school, she could not keep her achievements up due to her vision. Her eyesight began to blur gradually. This situation made Mimi have to stop going to school because her condition was increasingly difficult to understand the lesson. At that time, her parents began to seek healing for her, ranging from ophthalmologists and neurologists to alternative medicine. During the process, Mimi finally went to school for students with intellectual disabilities. Later, the more day Mimi dreamed of healing even more felt far away, the condition of her eyes became worse and could not be cured, and the doctor diagnosed that Mimi had total blindness because of genetic retinitis pigmentosa. About a month after that, she chose to isolate herself from the outside world, and she was self-confident. However, this condition actually encouraged her family and relatives to give support, so that Mimi tried to get up.
Mimi continued her study in public middle school and high school. Many friends gave support to her. These schools motivated her to pursue her higher education in universities. However, the materials were not really accessible for her, she used a tape recorder to record courses, and she was assisted by friends and relatives when she had to complete assignments and move to other new places. Now, she can prove to herself that she is a lecture at Atma Jaya University in Jakarta. Moreover, she has concern about the blind or children with special needs that brings Mimi had the initiative to establish a disabled counseling place called the Mimi Institute in 2009. This institution is aimed to familiarize the issues of disability, so that she hope that it would make environments more inclusive or friendly for all people.
Based on Mimi’s life, she experienced that she could not accept herself labelled as having total blindness. This medical model led her to be more frustrated when it could not be cured, and she withdrew herself from society. What is more, the social model was not supportive for her when the elementary school could not give what she needed at that time causing her to move to a segregated school for students with intellectual disabilities. Not only that, she also dealt with the challenges during study in public schools and universities such as inaccessible environments and unobtainable materials. Consequently, she needed a tape recorder to help herself in supporting her way of learning. Moreover, the social model was getting better when friends and relatives assisted her in understanding the materials or assignments and in guiding to new places. She was motivated by them because they were concerned with her, and it was inspiring Mimi to initiate the institution in order to make environments more inclusive.
All in all, based on the three blog lenses explained above, I believe that the medical model and social model are similar to a double-edged sword in which the taken action has several effects both in positive way and negative way. That is why these models are important to understand people with vision impairment or blindness. Take for example, by measuring the eye condition, an eye doctor can give some inputs to a teacher such as the visual acuity, so the teacher could develop legible letters and materials for students with visual impairment. Therefore, I think that all the aforementioned lenses should be used to design a individual centered approach for people with blindness or visual impairment by considering the strengths and weaknesses of the lenses.

Bolt, David. (2005). From Blindness to Visual Impairment: Terminological Typology and the Social Model of Disability. Retrieved from (accessed on Monday, October 15, 2018 at 09:16 PM) accessed on Tuesday, October 30, 2018 at 11:40 PM accessed on Tuesday, October 30, 2018 at 10:40 PM accessed on Friday, October 26, 2018 at 11:43 PM accessed on Monday, October 15, 2018 at 07:37 PM accessed on Friday, October 26, 2018 at 11:20 PM accessed on Monday, October 29, 2018 at 09:31 PM
Baglieri, Susan. (2017). Disability Studies and The Inclusive Classroom: Critical Practices for Embracing Diversity in Education (Second Edition). New York: Routledge.
United Nation. Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and Optional Protocol. Retrieved from accessed on Tuesday, October 30, 2018 at 10:13 PM

Sources for the pictures:
Picture 1. The Medical Model of Disability
Picture 2. The Social Model of Disability
Picture 3. A White Rubik’s Cube with Braille:
Picture 4. A Tactile Rubik’s Cube:
Picture 5. Digital books created by CAST

Thursday, September 27, 2018

The Implementation of Inclusive Education in Indonesia

The History of Education for The Disabled
The implementation of education for students with Special Educational Needs and Disability (SEND) has existed prior to its independence. Sunardi, et al., (2011: 2) says that, in 1901, Pioneer Westhoff opened a sheltered workshop for the blind in Bandung. Then, Vereniging Onderwijs established a school namely the Folker School in 1927 which accepted students with mental retardation. The first school for the deaf also was initiated in 1930 by Roelfsema. The number of these schools increased which were mostly managed by non-governmental foundations and were widely designed to admit students with all types of disabilities. In the late twentieth century, approximately 208 special schools opened by the government were spread over 200 districts where schools for the disabled were absent. Hence, the government wishes that the wider the special schools reach out to every district, the more school-aged children could get education equally. 
In addition to providing education for them universally, the government also initiated an integrated program enabling the disabled to attend regular schools along with the regulation of primary school compulsory education. These schools implementing this program were called as integrated schools which admitted special needs students with only at least normal intelligence, mostly students with visual impairment, who were expected to be able to accomplish tasks academically compared to the non-disabled peers. Boby Poernomo (2016:144) explains that the first implementation of inclusive education was a pilot projects in nine provinces. Regarding of continuing this program, the government reinforces the practice of inclusive education by allocating a grant up to some million rupiahs. Both the schools and local government could use this funding for events or activities connected to the progress towards inclusive education such as providing the process of learning the skills teachers need and budgeting for instructional and administrative materials.

 Indonesia’s Disability Rights Timeline
As stated in the constitution of the Republic of Indonesia 1945, it is unequivocal that the government guarantees every Indonesian citizen has the right of education, which is emphasized in Law No.20/2003 on National Education System (Baby Poernomo, 2016: 144). The government also ratified various international legal instruments such as Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948), World Declaration on Education for All (1990), UN Standard Rules on the Equal Opportunity for Persons with Disabilities (1993), UNESCO Salamanca Statement (1994), and Dakar Framework for Action (2000). The existence of the Salamanca Statement focused on education for all and assumpted to be inclusive strongly influenced the development of Indonesia’s education. To respond this statement, the government looked inclusive education as a new insight into the education field. 
In the light of the aforesaid, in 2013, the government initiated and enacted policies in order to enhance the implementation of inclusive education namely Direction Letter of the Directorate General of Primary and Secondary Education No 380/C.66/MN/2003, which elucidated about Special Education in Regular Schools stating that every district must operate at least four inclusive schools, one primary, secondary, generally high and vocational higher type. To encourage the implementation of this policy, the government promulgated a guideline for the implementation of inclusive schools. This guideline described six aspects that could support the practice of inclusiveness, which was school management, students enrollment process, curriculum, instruction, evaluation, and external supports. 

 Problems and Challenges
Some people believe that the successful improvement in inclusive schools is efforts to meet the needs of all students. This belief is expressed on the government’s guideline as mentioned previously. Based on the research conducted by Sunardi, et al., there were some findings related to the problem and challenges in which Indonesia is still experiencing. Firstly, more than 75% out of 186 inclusive schools admitted that extra attempts were still needed such as building relevant external parties, conducting regular coordination meetings, and having a strategic plan for inclusion, so that all schools would be well-prepared to manage inclusive education. Secondly, less than 50% of inclusive schools reported to have adequate identification and assessment systems and involve parents and relevant professional in order to guarantee the individual needs were properly met in the schools. 
Third, only 50% of inclusive schools had already modified curriculum standards, but the sports, arts, and vocational education programs for the disabled remained similar to the able-bodied peers because teachers did not have competence in adapting curriculum for students with disabilities. Then, for the schools who had already developed the curriculum, some lacked appropriate equipment, media, or resources, so it was quite difficult to meet individual needs. What is more, some government policies in evaluation do not support inclusion. For instance, the national exam for graduation was challenging for students with special needs because it enabled them who were with at least normal intellectual capability to pass required scores. Last but not least, external supports provided by the government or society were not ample to boost inclusive environment because this term was relatively new, therefore, parents and community might have a limited understanding of it. As mentioned by Baby Poernomo (2016: 148), a lack of understanding and knowledge in the educational system is a part of unintentional attitudinal barriers. Hence, despite the fact that there is impressive progress on inclusive education in Indonesia, inclusive schools still need government’s interference in improving the implementation of inclusive education.

Poernomo, Baby. (2016). The Implementation of Inclusive Education in Indonesia: Current Problems and Challenges. American International Journal of Social Science. Vol 2, No. 3, June 2016.
Sunardi, et al.. (2011). The Implementation of Inclusive Education for Students with Special Needs in Indonesia. Excellence in Higher Education 2 (2011): 1-10.

Thursday, March 22, 2018

BNPT Terima Anjangsana Penerima Beasiswa USAID Prestasi 3

Foto bersama antara jajaran BNPT, USAID, dan scholars.

Jakarta – Kegiatan Anjangsana USAID dan para peserta penerima beasiswa magister USAID ke Kantor BNPT telah terselenggara. Bertempat di salah satu Gedung Kementerian di Jakarta, BNPT menerima Staf dan Pejabat USAID serta puluhan penerima beasiswa Magister USAID PRESTASI 3.
Kedatangan para peserta pada Rabu (21/03) pagi, disambut Kepala Biro Perencanaan, Hukum, dan Humas BNPT, Bangbang Surono dan Direktur Kerja Sama Internasional BNPT, Andhika Chrisnayudhanto. Sementara itu jajaran staf USAID, dipimpin oleh USAID Deputy Mission Director, David Hoffman dan Office of Education Director, Pete Cronin.
Kegiatan anjangsana dengan tema “Wednesday Speaker Series” bermanfaat sebagai tahap persiapan para penerima beasiswa. Kegiatan dilakukan dengan melakukan kunjungan ke berbagai instansi/organisasi terkait di mana para ahli dapat berbagi pengetahuan dan pengalaman yang mendukung para penerima beasiswa.
Kegiatan dibuka dengan sambutan dari Karoren BNPT, yang mengapresiasi kunjungan USAID dan para penerima beasiswa. Pada kesempatan ini dirinya berharap dapat terjalinnya persahabatan antara BNPT dengan USAID dan kepada para penerima beasiswa.  “Kami harapkan di masa mendatang, para hadirin dapat memberikan sumbangsihnya dalam pembangunan bangsa dan penanggulangan terorisme,” ujarnya.
Kegiatan dilanjutkan dengan kata pengantar dari USAID Deputy Mission Director, David Hoffman dan USAID Education Director, Pete Cronin. Dalam sambutannya, Pete Cronin mengenalkan para peserta secara umum kepada jajaran BNPT serta harapannya terhadap penerima beasiswa. Ia juga berterima kasih atas kesediaan dari BNPT dalam memberikan paparan kepada penerima beasiswa tentang kerja penting BNPT.
“Kami sudah bekerja sama dengan berbagai instansi pemerintahan di Indonesia, seperti KPK, Komisi Yudisial, Kemenkumham, dan BNPT dalam berbagai bidang studi seperti hukum internasional, manajemen konflik dan penanggulangan terorisme. Para penerima beasiswa USAID PRESTASI 3 mewakili 8 provinsi di Indonesia yang dipilih berdasarkan prestasi akademik, pengalaman profesional, serta dedikasi kepada masyarakat. Diharapkan sepulangnya ke tanah air, para penerima beasiswa dapat memberikan kontribusi hebat bagi Indonesia,” ujarnya.
Kegiatan dilanjutkan dengan paparan singkat tentang pengenalan dan capaian BNPT dalam lingkup penanggulangan terorisme oleh Kepala BNPT Komjen. Pol. Drs. Suhardi Alius. Ia menjelaskan bahwa menanggulangi terorisme dapat menggunakan pendekatan keras dan pendekatan lunak. Lebih lanjut mantan Sekretaris Utama Lemhannas tersebut menekankan pada pendekatan lunak milik BNPT yang menjadi contoh negara-negara lain. Kepada para peserta, Kepala BNPT juga mengucapkan selamat dan sukses dalam menuntut ilmu di Amerika Serikat.
Pemberian Beasiswa USAID ini adalah sebagai bentuk kerja sama antara Indonesia dengan Amerika Serikat. Penerima beasiswa USAID PRESTASI 3 yang mencapai  23 orang yang berasal dari berbagai instansi pemerintah Indonesia akan bertolak ke Amerika Serikat pada pertengahan tahun 2018. Dua penerima beasiswa prestasi di antaranya ialah pegawai BNPT.

Sunday, March 18, 2018

Bahasa Isyarat di Indonesia dan Amerika

Simbol bahasa isyarat.

Dewasa ini, bahasa isyarat bukanlah suatu hal yang asing bagi masyarakat pada umumnya. Pada hakekatnya, semua orang pernah menggunakan bahasa isyarat dalam mempermudah komunikasi dengan lawan bicaranya. Hanya saja intensitas yang digunakan oleh mereka mungkin berbeda dari penyandang tunarungu atau tuli. Penyandang tuli menggunakan bahasa isyarat sebagai bahasa komunikasi sehari-hari. Sistem bahasa isyarat bagi penyandang tuli ada di berbagai negara, layaknya di Indonesia dan Amerika. 

Di Indonesia, kita mengenal Bahasa Isyarat Indonesia (Bisindo) sebagai bahasa ibu bagi penyandang tuli. Bahasa tersebut dipengaruhi oleh kultur lokal seperti budaya, sehingga Bisindo yang digunakan di satu tempat akan berbeda dengan tempat lain. Contohnya, di daerah pedesaan, penyandang tuli akan akan menempelkan "jari telunjuk" ke arah "pipi" untuk menyebut "ibu". Secara kultur, hal tersebut karena ibu selalu menyayangi anak dengan mencium pipinya pada saat mereka masih anak-anak. Di sisi lain, penyandang tuli yang hidup di daerah perkotaan akan menempelkan "jari telunjuk" ke arah "telinga" untuk menyebut "ibu". Mereka mengidentifikasi ibu sebagai perempuan yang selalu menggunakan anting-anting. Oleh karena itu, berdasarkan contoh tersebut, kebudayaan mempengaruhi cara penyandang tuli dalam berbahasa isyarat.

"American Sign Language (ASL) is a visible language that is linguistically independent of English. It consists of hand-shapes and movements that represent words, grammar, and concepts, and it is a complete language with rich cultural associations." (NALD, 2012: 2)

Berdasar pendapat tersebut, ASL adalah bahasa yang bisa dilihat dengan indra penglihatan dan terlepas dari bahasa Inggris. ASL terdiri dari gerakan tangan yang melambangkan kata, tata bahasa, dan konsep, dan ASL merupakan bahasa yang kaya akan kebudayaan. Seperti halnya Indonesia yang mempunyai Bisindo, Amerika pun mempunyai ASL, yang secara kebahasaan bisa diasumsikan bahasa daerah bagi penyandang tuli.

Sumber: Legal Rights published by Gallaudet University Press